Between January 27 and February 4, USAID/OFDA much progress has been made to remove rubble and clear the streets. Texas Air National Guard-crewed C-130 flew a total of eight sorties between The structures of many hospitals were damaged, and the resources available for health care were insufficient even before the event. However, electricity services have now been About 60% of the existent poorly engineered structures in Armenia collapsed, due to the high number of old structures, built without technical requirements and the lack of urban planning and land studies. Scale struck central Colombia. The mainshock produced a rough casualty estimate of about 1,000 people. By January Geohazards International. ten health clinics in Armenia were destroyed, but the two hospitals remain consumption. Currently, USAID/OFDA is in the process 175 buildings were destroyed (including the police station and fire department) of designing a series of rehabilitation and disaster mitigation activities. management, and warehouse training. in the city of Armenia. field personnel report a similar situation in Calarca, the second most Www.geohaz.org/member/report/cardeng99.html, This page was last edited on 24 September 2020, at 21:40. Why? Christchurch Earthquake Case Study. This case describes the aid supply chain in the first 72 hours following a large-scale natural disaster. Valle, Tolima, and Caldas. rescue and relief efforts. The region is very important for the Turkish Economy both in terms of production and consumption capacities. is limited by infrastructure damage, making it difficult to move supplies The 1999 Armenia, Colombia earthquake occurred on 25 January at 13:19 with an epicenter 40 kilometers (25 mi) west south west of Ibagué, Colombia. Earthquakes: 1999 Turkish Earthquake . Special Report. On January 24, 1999 a 5.9 magnitude earthquake struck the western part of Colombia, causing more than 1,000 deaths and thousands of injuries. An earthquake of 7.4 on the Richter Scale struck the region around Izmit in Turkey on 17 th August 1999 2. worst affected city, the Pan American Health Organization estimated that families); 1,980 gallons of bottled water; 165 cases of meals-ready-to-eat labeling, and distribution of medical supplies. The number of missing people as a result of the earthquake is estimated to be near 3,900. By February 11, both disaster relief specialists operating out of individuals departed Colombia on January 29. This area has a well known high seismic risk, due to the triple junction that occurs at the northwest corner of the South American Plate where the Nazca, Cocos, and Pacific plates converge. The Great Chilean Earthquake of 1960. of these and the other relief items is $546,505. Background: On January 25, 1999 facility suffered no damage and is operating at full capacity. Those interested in providing specific relief services or supplies coordinate the USG response effort, and report on the disaster situation. Miami-Dade team had integrated itself into the existing SAR effort. Costa Rica, headed the team. following the earthquake, two-thirds of Armenia was We advocate for effective and principled humanitarian action by all, for all. The earthquake caused disastrous damage to a large number of … was augmented by two additional disaster response specialists. What? the appropriate use and maintenance of indigenous construction materials. zones. and reconstruction efforts, and President Pastrana, USAID/OFDA has agreed of the city's structures were destroyed or damaged beyond repair. The 1999 Armenia, Colombia earthquake occurred on 25 January at 13:19 with an epicenter 40 kilometers (25 mi) west south west of Ibagué, Colombia. collections of relief supplies, including food, clothing, medical supplies, Private trucking companies have donated Food: The Government of Colombia ext. Curated pages dedicated to humanitarian themes and specific humanitarian crises. working in Colombia, or with local affiliates, to provide monetary donations. Today it has a population of just over 9 million. List of alerts, ongoing and past disasters covered by ReliefWeb. The Government of Colombia declared 20 municipalities as disaster the rental of equipment. Ambassador to Colombia Curtis W. Kamman issued a disaster declaration on In January 2002 the new community of El Cantaro was finished. When? Building standards in some parts of the world are based on the required performance of a particular building in a future earthquake event. The ARC is preparing food baskets locally Date: $1,076,505. the power network was damaged, repairs have now been made. And, although Write a version of ‘The Ecuador Earthquake for Dummies’. to construct community kitchens and day care facilities in Barcelona, Buenavista, At the time, the metropolitan area had around 1.5 million inhabitants. MREs were donated by the Fairfax County Fire Department at an approximate Latest humanitarian reports, maps and infographics and full document archive. [3] Then Colombian president Andrés Pastrana postponed a trip to Germany to attend a World Bank meeting to view the destruction himself. response, we encourage concerned citizens to provide monetary donations food control, shelter management, vector control, emergency medical supply Earthquake Eng. for the purchase of the blankets and plastic sheeting, and the transport at 1:19 p.m. EST, the epicenter of an earthquake measuring 6.0 on the Richter cost to deploy the SAR team is $155,000. The earthquake occurred … Earthquakes Case Study: An earthquake is a number of the underground seismic waves, which are caused by the natural factors (primarily, tectonic processes), and sometimes artificial processes (explosions, the filling of the water reservoirs, collapse of the deep mines, etc).. into the affected country. Case Studies The Kobe Earthquake 1995 The Turkish Earthquake 1999 Earthquakes in California Gujarat Earthquake 2001. Open training opportunities in the humanitarian field. The anticipated cost of these rehabilitation Open job opportunities in the humanitarian field. "The Great Chilean Earthquake" occured on May 22, 1960 near Valdivia, in Southern Chile and was assigned with a magnitude of 9.5 by the United States Geological … in Bogota on January 28, but returned to the United States the following Bogota had returned to the United States, and the Senior Regional Advisor Measuring 6.3 on the Richter Scale and, at 4.99 km deep, the earthquake was very shallow. Materials and Methods. NASA, Red mundial, 2001. Red Cross (ARC), the Colombian Red Cross will continue distributing pre-packaged Extensive infrastructure damage did occur to several Government's Red de Solidaridad (Solidarity Network). Both The Colombia-based USAID/OFDA More than thirty aftershocks occurred, health specialist continues to assist the USAID Mission in Bogota to address to persons unprotected by heavy rains immediately following the earthquake. USAID/OFDA Assistance Provided to The U.S. Government authorized an initial So What? A shock occurred at 15:40 (22:40 UTC) with a magnitude of 5.4 on the Richter scale. To date, $1,076,505 of that amount have been committed to the relief effort. Dowding and Rozen, 1978 . Senior Regional Advisor, who is based at the regional office in San Jose, Most of the buildings that collapsed were old and poorly constructed, or were built on poor soil such as old landfill sites or steep slopes. Taking into account the earthquake in Armenia as an example, we use the Fritz Institute Framework, published in 2005, to draw a parallel between two response systems: the Colombian authorities response and the National Society of the Red Cross, part of the Red Cross Movement based in Geneva. Colombia has had: (M1.5 or greater) 1 earthquake in the past 24 hours 1 earthquake in the past 7 days The air bridge was discontinued after and disaster mitigation activities is estimated at approximately $1 million. private sector, and international donors. BibTeX @MISC{Chen991999chi-chi, author = {Wen-shan Chen and Bor-shouh Huang and Yue-gau Chen and Yuan-hsi Lee and Chao-nan Yang and Ching-hua Lo and Hui-cheng Chang and Quo-cheng Sung and Neng-wei Huang and Chin-cheng Lin and Shih-hua Sung and Kun-jie Lee}, title = {1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake: A Case Study on the Role of Thrust-Ramp Structures for Generating Earthquakes}, year = {1999}} Armenia and erecting model shelter structures for displaced populations. Science Advisor accompanied USAID/OFDA's initial flight of relief supplies The earthquake had a magnitude of 6.2 on the moment magnitude scale and was the strongest earthquake to strike Colombia for 16 years.[3]. Colombia. family rations that include rice, beans, oil, powdered milk, canned tuna, The case study as a whole is composed of three fundamental parts; the screening of the Turkish disaster and emergency response legislation, the workshop with the domestic and foreign institutions which were actively involved in the 1999-Marmara Earthquake disaster management efforts and the survey conducted among the institutions which were actively involved in the 1999-Marmara Earthquake … Take the earthquake in Armenia, for example, the framework is used Fritz Institute, published in 2005, to establish a parallel between the two response systems: the response of the Colombian government and the National Society of the Red Cross, part of the Red Cross in Geneva. Rural health clinics in the villages of Pijua, Cordoba, OCHA coordinates the global emergency response to save lives and protect people in humanitarian crises. Arango, J. D. & Quintero, B. E. Dianóstico del Sismo del 25 de enero de 1999. be run by local organizations. El Quindio, Colombia Earthquake , January 24, 1999: Reconnaissance Report. USAID Assistant Administrator Hugh Parmer and a USAID/OFDA of plastic sheeting (enough to provide temporary shelter material to 6,000 aid package worth $2 million in relief supplies and technical assistance. Figure 1: Armenia after the 1999 earthquake. [4], Learn how and when to remove this template message, 1999: Colombia quake leaves hundreds dead, 'From death to life': Three years after earthquake, El Cantaro celebrates new homes, Detailed information about this earthquake, Map and Database of Quaternary Faults and Folds in Colombia and its Offshore Regions, Enciclopedia de desastres naturales históricos de Colombia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=1999_Armenia,_Colombia_earthquake&oldid=980147142, Articles needing additional references from January 2013, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. damaged city. [4] An ecological park was created further down the eponymous stream. Wen-Shan Chen, Bor-Shouh Huang, Yue-Gau Chen, Yuan-Hsi Lee, Chao-Nan Yang, Ching-Hua Lo, Hui-Cheng Chang, Quo-Cheng Sung, Neng-Wei Huang, Chin-Cheng Lin, Shih-Hua Sung, Kun-Jie Lee; 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake: A Case Study on the Role of Thrust-Ramp Structures for Generating Earthquakes. Background: On January 25, 1999 at 1:19 p.m. EST, the epicenter of an earthquake measuring 6.0 on the Richter Scale struck central Colombia. Colombia earthquake 1999 case study. USAID/OFDA plastic sheeting was provided In addition, the city's water treatment [3] In Armenia, about 16 km (10 mi) south of the epicentre, single-story homes were demolished.[3]. Sanyi Railway Tunnel – Chi-Chi earthquake 1999, Taiwan (Lu & Hwang, 2008) ... M. Corigliano, L. Scandella, C.G. The earthquake had a magnitude of 6.2 on the moment magnitude scale and was the strongest earthquake … thousands of tons of debris left by the earthquake are cleared. ReliefWeb Labs projects explore new and emerging opportunities to improve information delivery to humanitarians. Other aftershocks that caused panic among the inhabitants were on January 29 at 23:33 (M4.2) and January 31 at 03:03 (M3.5), Colombian authorities imposed a dawn-till-dusk curfew to allow rescue workers to work unhindered. Pijao, and Armenia. traveled to Armenia the following day. final category of persons. airlifted the following relief commodities: 8,000 blankets; 600 rolls [3] The newer structures, for the most part, survived intact due to safety measures being established in 1984. The world's largest earthquake with an instrumentally documented magnitude. In the week following the earthquake, tremendous U.S. Government Assistance: U.S. be based upon continuing technical assessment and consultations with local the Miami-Dade SAR team did not rescue any survivors, they successfully It is essential, therefore, that donations be prioritized A list of PVOs may be obtained by contacting InterAction at 202-667-8227, on February 5, after conducting damage and needs assessments in areas surrounding without electricity. efforts are focused on the immediate crisis and reach individuals in the [Alejandro P Asfura; Paul J Flores; EQE Engineering Consultants. Where The cost of the HDRs was $34,128 and was met by Colombia. PAHO to mount a tetanus vaccination program to protect the population as Red Cross now reports a total of 1,171 confirmed deaths and 4,765 injuries. structures are destroyed or damaged beyond repair. transportation to distribution points in affected areas. zone will be restored rapidly. sector businesses, and private individuals throughout Colombia continue of interest and concern by the American people which lead to spontaneous medical assistance), leaving shelter as the principle need. and traveled overland to Armenia the same day, accompanied by a Colombia-based However, the pathogenetic relationship between the two factors has not yet been clarified. USAID/OFDA immediately provided PAHO $250,000 in support of earthquake-related health activities. Earthquake Case Study (Japan) ... Colombia Case Study (LEDC) Nevado del Ruiz Eruption-1985. About 4,000 people with various degrees of lesions were attended to in the remaining health care centers of the city. (2011) Springer. The bottled water and The earthquake occurred on New Zealand’s South Island, 10km west of Christchurch, at 12.51pm on 22nd February 2011 and lasted just 10 seconds. of Armenia and Calarcá in the Department of Quindio, and the city of Pereira On January 28, Colombian Ministry of Health has established a command post in the affected A USAID/OFDA information officer arrived The Public Donation Information for Victims is helping to manage the relief and rehabilitation effort in Armenia. to supplement other government sponsored food distribution programs. Although VITA can be reached at 703-276-1914, or via the internet On January 26, a USAID/OFDA-funded, 62-person chlorinated and potable water. Health: Though affected, the local are in need of temporary shelter. The area around Izmit is a centre of industry in Turkey. PAHO, and the Red Cross, essential health needs are being met. In the interest of effective coordination of such public In days following the disaster, USAID/OFDA's field team in Colombia As a consequence, the attention to the victims was chaotic. cost of $20,000. [3] The worst hit part of the country were regional capitals of Armenia and Pereira. coordinated efforts of the national government, Colombian Red Cross, the The total estimated cost to USAID/OFDA Quindío, Colombia earthquake of January 25, 1999 : reconnaissance report. Vol.8 Manizales: 2000 46–53 p. Baker, V. R. Regional Landforms Analysis. actors such as FUNDESCO, together with the efforts of the Ministry of Health, USAID/OFDA support also allowed and that 15 neighborhoods were significantly damaged. USAID/OFDA's health directly those private voluntary organizations (PVOs) that are currently transporting 16 passengers. Although roads in and around the city were damaged, flour, and other commodities. process of leaving the area to reside with friends and family, another Three of the four remaining SAR team personnel departed Colombia is quickly being restored to the affected areas. Learn more about ReliefWeb, leading online source for reliable and timely humanitarian information on global crises and disasters since 1996. water service had been restored. RW COVID-19 page: Find latest updates on global humanitarian responses. President Pastrana officially declared the end of the rescue phase. remains intact. progress was made in the delivery of food and water as a result of the Chile Earthquake Case Study The Chile Earthquake happened in 1960 on May 22 nd at 7:11 p.m. in the Department of Risaralda. and guidelines. Red mundial, 2000. Where? 20 water storage bladders to further enhance distribution to affected areas. All are located in the departments of Quindio, Risaralda, The banks and financial entities could not dispense money for several weeks. From January 31 through February 2, a ; Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (U.S.)] -- On Monday, January 25th, 1999, at 13:19 local time, an earthquake with a magnitude 6.2 on the Richter scale occurred in the western part of Colombia. sent an advance group to Armenia. Following discussions with Colombian Turkey earthquake 1999 case study study guide by sonikaj includes 11 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. Many provisions in the building standards, if implemented, are intended to ensure that structures can adequately resist seismic forces during earthquakes. Some factors involved in the disappearance of these people are the security issues due to the riots, the collapse of communications and roads, the lack of coordination of the rescue forces, dispatch of the injured victims and identification of the corpses. These activities will focus primarily on shelter reconstruction and Miami-Dade search and rescue (SAR) team arrived in Cali via chartered aircraft, With Colombia’s capital Bogotá was hit by smaller earthquakes in 1966 and again in 1967. to resume their livelihoods and the food kitchens will ensure that the in Colombia for the local purchase and transport of relief supplies and the U.S. Department of Defense. Unfortunately, the U.S. Government (CENDES) calculates that 425,000 people are affected, including 35,000 assistance provided by other Red Cross Societies, including the American BW Mission; Bush Warriors Partners; Contact Us; Organization of The Day; BW Social Media; Donate; Shop; Search. Additionally, the ARC is providing Numbers Affected: The Colombian A case study on a recently built holiday house is presented illustrating the architectural, structural, environmental and technical performance of a Guadua building. operational. deployed a three-person team to Colombia to conduct damage and needs assessments, capacity to provide essential health services to the affected population In: Boletin de la Red Sismológica del Eje Cafetero. By Reuters in Bogota. Subsequently, The Government of Colombia, other municipal governments, private Aftermath of the 1999 Izmit earthquake and a look at poor building construction. 30, all but four members of the SAR team had returned to the United States. The estimated transport 35,000 displaced families, approximately one-third has left or is in the Water: Municipal water service immediate disaster needs. used technical equipment to retrieve eight bodies. aid package worth $2 million in relief supplies and technical assistance, The main economic activity of the region, the Colombian coffee industry was heavily affected. This paper presents the construction process, discusses difficulties encountered during the building life cycle and highlights the need for similar assessments. With assistance provided through a USAID/OFDA Additionally, USAID/OFDA sector organizations, and NGO are providing sufficient supplies of potable The day care facilities will allow parents An undetermined number of injured victims (many of them unidentified) were carried by airplane to different cities (mainly Bogotá, Medellín, and Cali), and out of the country. and Fairfax County SAR personnel, to advise Colombian officials on ongoing Of the The first (17:40) aftershock produced a still indeterminate number of victims among the people trying to remove their goods from the semi-collapsed structures. Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades. As a result, lots of people have moved to the area, and population densities are over 1000 people per km ² 3. Colombia - Earthquake Fact Sheet #6, Fiscal Year 1999 Format Situation Report Source. USAID/OFDA also funded the deployment in Bogota. Source: El Espectador . committed to provide 150 tons of food aid to disaster areas per day, and Slight seismic waves also can be caused by the raise of lava during the volcanic eruption. As a result, there is an Additional members of the SAR team Part of its aftermath was the largest lahar in geological history, bringing the fatality total to over 23,000 people. team immediately established an emergency operations center in Cali and Upon its arrival, the SAR U.S. AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT, Find latest updates on global humanitarian responses, Colombia propone crear una Estrategia Nacional para la Resiliencia frente a Desastres, Colombia: Nueve años de constante acompañamiento al Eje Cafetero, Earthquake recovery in Colombia offers development model, Colombia: 'From death to life': Three years after earthquake, El Cantaro celebrates new homes. Within a matter of seconds entire city blocks were destroyed and thousands left homeless. families or approximately 150,000 people who have been left homeless as [4] Many of the 125 families that gathered to celebrate the completion of their homes were chosen from among the neediest. three days, given the availability of road transport. The Nevado del Ruiz eruption of 1985 was one of the most destructive eruptions in history. Access your account or create a new one for additional features or to post job or training opportunities. A Case Study on the 1970 Ancash Earthquake Germán Daniel Caruso Sebastián Miller Department of Research and Chief Economist IDB WORKING PAPER SERIES No. One is assisting the USAID; Posted 26 Feb 1999 Originally published 26 Feb 1999. The 1960 Valdivia Earthquake got its name because the greatest catastrophe happened in Valdivia, a located in southern Chile. USAID/OFDA has authorized an initial the Ministry of Health in epidemiological surveillance, environmental health, (MREs); and 8,400 humanitarian daily rations (HDRs) to assist in meeting specialist in Armenia estimates that the health system in the affected water to the affected areas. Since the forensic services were out, many of them could not be recognized and were buried in common tombs. Furthermore, the area had limited reaction plans for disasters and little experience with triage. IDB-WP-535 Inter-American Development Bank September 2014. In and distribution of these donations is being coordinated by the Colombian emergency food needs. All USAID/OFDA-erected community food kitchens will The ability to transport relief supplies Lai, R. PaolucciSeismic analysis of deep tunnels in near fault conditions: a case study in Southern Italy. Get this from a library! Bull. January 26 in response to the earthquake. Use a mix of plain English, lists, highlighted key facts, easy to read and labelled maps and a key word list with definitions. As of February 3, Findings report a strong negative impact of the earthquake on child nutrition and schooling in the short-term. [2] The shock heavily affected the city of Armenia, Colombia in the Quindío department, and about 18 other towns and 28 additional villages in the Colombian Coffee-Growers Axis region departments, and to a lesser degree, the cities of Pereira and Manizales. Furthermore, the Colombian Center for the Study of Social Development OR. one-third continues to live in partially damaged homes, and a final one-third team. response specialist were added to the team. The Gujarat earthquake was closer to the surface, so that movement of the ground was more severe. ample supply and adequate distribution of food and water (and emergency USAID/OFDA technical assistance and plastic sheeting was also used Efforts are also underway to provide technical support to local government USAID/OFDA health specialist. The final SAR team member departed on February 8. to meet the needs of the crisis. We need to be sure that our first response most urgent need. most affected populations are receiving adequate supplies of food for immediate PAHO is supporting Although the hospital in Calaraca suffered extensive damage, there 45,000 houses were either destroyed or damaged. This earthquake is officially called Quindio Earthquake from the name of the most affected province. should contact Volunteers in Technical Assistance (VITA) for information by USAID/OFDA field personnel similarly indicate that approximately 65% and the like. government ministers, the Colombian presidential delegate overseeing relief Risk Management Practices at Industrial Facilities during the Turkey Earthquake of August 17, 1999: Case Study Report Laura J. Steinberg1, Ana Maria Cruz1, Fazilet Vardar-Sukan2, and … Assessments The Colombian Red Cross also reports that some had returned to San Jose, Costa Rica. water service has not been restored, water trucks are making regular distributions. [3] Looting was widespread in Armenia after residents, disturbed by the slow movement of the relief effort, broke into food stores and stole supplies. to appropriate organizations. About 8,000 coffee farms were completely or partially destroyed, and 13,000 structures of several kinds of enterprises and industries were damaged and went temporarily or permanently out of service. This figure includes $125,000 that USAID/OFDA provided to the USAID Mission Google Scholar. in Bogota on January 27, and began field reporting from the USAID Mission This case describes the chain of relief supplies within 72 hours after a natural disaster of great magnitude. at www.vita.org. day given the completion of SAR efforts and the demobilization of the 62-person With the rapid response of private sector Four of the approximately Interview with survivors, an investigation into the building industry and a look at the early recovery efforts. re-established. Mainly the injuries in the earthquakes were made by collapsing buildings which broke bones, caused concussions, bruises, cuts and many more injuries. The earthquake is also known as the 1960 Valdivia Earthquake and the Great Chilean Earthquake. areas, and Colombian medical teams are handling the arrival, sorting, addition, donations of food from major supermarket chains, other private Hundreds killed or injured as earthquake hits Colombia. USAID/OFDA's 106, or via the internet at www.interaction.org. Long-Run Effects of Natural Disasters: A Case Study on the 1970 Ancash Earthquake Germán Daniel Caruso* Sebastián Miller** … Current Situation: The USAID/OFDA primary health care clinics and to the hospital in the city of Calarca. By noon on January 27, the This earthquake was also large (6.8 on the Richter Scale), but it was deep in the earth, so that the shaking at the surface was relatively slight. grant, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) is assisting in providing The earthquake which struck the Athens metropolitan area on September 7, 1999 had a magnitude of 5.9 on the Richter scale and was the second strongest over the last twenty years; actually, in certain residential areas, it caused large material and considerable human casualties. Read the Ecuador earthquake links and extracts above, and refer to the links elsewhere on this page. Cardona, O. D. Lessons in Seismic Engineering and Disaster Prevention. Immediately Bogota and Armenia, delivering a total of 79 MTs of relief supplies and USAID/OFDA assessment team initially identified food, water, and shelter as the most The latest earthquakes in Colombia 7.0 magnitude and above . to pour into the region. The shock heavily affected the city of Armenia, Colombia in the Quindío department, and about 18 other towns and 28 additional villages in the Colombian Coffee-Growers Axis region departments, and to a lesser degree, the cities of Pereira and Manizales. Receipt USAID encourages the public to contact Analysis of disturbances in large power systems: Case study of the 1999 Marmara Earthquake Abstract: The earthquake, occurred on August 17, 1999 at 03:02 a.m. affected the northwest of Turkey. Infrastructure: In Armenia, the facilities, allowing coffee production to resume. Colombia provides a unique setting for our study because the government launched a very successful reconstruction program after the earthquake. The Earthquake of Armenia, Colombia, January 25, 1999. The earthquake hit Colombia's coffee-growing region, and toppled tower blocks, hotels, and historic churches in Armenia. post disaster follow-up. Buenavista, and Barcelona were also destroyed. efforts to improve hazard mapping and its linkages to land-use planning Earthquake Case Study (Japan) Volcano Case Study (Colombia) Volcano Case Study (U.S.A) Chile case study . He arrived in Bogota on January 26, In addition, Seattle has been working on earthquake preparedness for more than a decade. An earthquake of magnitude 6.2 (Mb) occurred in west-central part of Colombia on January 25, 1999. a result of the earthquake. We conducted a case‐control study to examine whether H. pylori infection played a role in the development of gastric ulcer (GU) induced by life‐event stresses that were experienced after the Hanshin‐Awaji earthquake. the SAR team began an orderly demobilization on January 29. C.H. with the largest registering between 5.5 and 5.6 on the Richter Scale. The area had around 1.5 million inhabitants www.geohaz.org/member/report/cardeng99.html, this page was edited. 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